SAT.UPDATE: secret UFC on FOX show Sunday, ROH tag title tourney, major anniversaries, Internet wrestling tonight, Joey Styles does Yankees highlights
By Dave Meltzer |
We're looking for reports on tonight's Dragon Gate USA show in Taylor, MI, tonight's Raw house show in Lexington, KY (John Cena vs. Big Show cage match, Kofi Kingston & R-Truth defend tag titles against Hunico & Camacho and Prime Time Players, The Miz vs. Zack Ryder for the IC title, Santino Marella vs. William Regal for the U.S. title, Layla vs. Beth Phoenix for the Divas title), tonight's Smackdown show in Johnson City, TN, tonight's TNA show in Washington, PA at the Consol Energy Park (Battle Royal for title shot, Miss Tessmacher vs. Madison Rayne for Knockouts title, Kurt Angle vs. Magnus Bound for Glory series, A.J. Styles vs. RVD Bound for Glory Series, Devon vs. Bobby Roode and Christopher Daniels & Kazarian vs. Jeff Hardy & RVD for tag titles plus Austin Aries defends against the Battle Royal winner), tonight's Invicta show from Kansas City and last night's WWE Raw house show in Charleston, WV at
.Tonight's Dragon Gate USA iPPV show
from Taylor, MI:
-Johnny Gargano vs. Akira Tozawa for the Open the Freedom Gate title
-Cima & AR Fox vs. El Generico & Samuray del Sol
-Rich Swann vs. Chuck Taylor
-Yamato vs. Ricochet
-Super Smash Brothers vs. The Scene
-Jon Davis vs. Jake Manning
-Arik Cannon & Pinkie Sanchez vs. N8 Mattson & the best wrestler from today's tryout
Tonight also has the Invicta Fighting Championships
, an all-women's MMA show from Kansas City streaming free
-Sara McMann (5-0) vs. Shayna Baszler (14-6)
-Hitomi Akano (18-9) vs. Alexis Davis (11-5)
-Liz Carmouche (6-2) vs. Kaitlyn Young (7-5-1)
-Sara D'Alelio (5-2) vs. Vanessa Porto (14-4)
-Ayaka Hamasaki (7-0, Jewels champion) vs. Lacey Schuckman (7-4)
-Barb Honchak (5-2) vs. Bethany Marshall (4-0)
-Julia Budd (2-2) vs. Elina Nilsson (2-2)
-Carla Esparza (6-2) vs. Sarah Schneider (6-5)
There will be 14 matches in all starting at 7 p.m. Eastern and 4 p.m. Pacific.
ROH TV tonight on Sinclair:
-Rhino vs. Rocko
-Tomasso Ciampa vs. Mike Sydal
-Roderick Strong vs. Adam Cole for TV title
There will be another Dragon Gate USA iPPV on Sunday at 8 p.m. from Chicago:
- Cima & AR Fox vs. Ricochet & Rich Swann for the vacant Open the United Gate tag title
- El Generico vs. Akira Tozawa
- Johnny Gargano vs. Chuck Taylor I Quit match
- Jon Davis vs. Yamato (Davis says he will retire if he loses)
- Arik Cannon & Pinkie Sanchez vs. Super Smash Brothers
- The Scene vs. Zero Gravity
- Samuray del Sol vs. Shane Hollister
- Masada vs. Jake Manning
Ultimate Fighter Brazil airs at 7 p.m. tonight on Fuel, followed by Best of Pride at 8 p.m. and UFC 141 (Lesnar vs. Overeem) at 10 p.m., and the prelims from the Calgary show last Saturday are at 1 a.m.
Sunday also has Raw in Louisville, Smackdown in Pikeville, KY and TNA in Akron, OH at the Civic Theater (Battle Royal, Tessmacher vs. Rayne, Mr. Anderson vs. Magnus Bound for Glory series, Devon vs. Roode, Daniels & Kazarian vs. Angle & Styles).
The three-hour Raw will be live from Cincinnati's U.S. Bank Arena on Monday. Smackdown will be taped Tuesday at the Bankers Life Fieldhouse in Indianapolis.
OBSERVER ALERT: HISTORY OF MONDAY NIGHT RAW, WRESTLING ON TV
We've got a special history of Monday Night Raw and a look back at the longest lasting wrestling shows in U.S. television history as the main focus of two issues of the Observer on the site this week. If you are a print subscriber, the two issues are combined into a double issue.
We look back at the 1,000th Raw, including the highlights, what things are building to, the usage of wrestlers from the past, what the ratings pattern said about what people were most into, as well as how the various demographics related to different segments and personalities on the show.
We look at the people on the show, as well as what happened to others who were either at the arena or talked about at one point regarding being there. We look at the C.M. Punk heel turn, what people expect for SummerSlam, Royal Rumble and WrestleMania as well as full coverage of the show.
We also have a history of Raw, the transition from syndicated television to cable television, promotions paying to get on the air, stations paying promotions, how wrestling changed in the 80s, what killed the territories that people never talk about, the real longest running weekly episodic television shows in U.S. history, the Monday Night Wars, how viewership of wrestling has changed since the Monday Night Wars, how the aim of wrestling has changed, how Raw and Nitro differed from wrestling show of the past, what killed Nitro, Raw ratings history, the voices of Raw, who Vince McMahon tried to get to host Raw and the story behind it.
We also look at the longest running wrestling shows in history and the people most associated with them. We look at the histories of those shows. We also have a lot of stats for the history of Raw, including who had the most matches, won the most matches, ratings and what cities have played host the most times.
We also have full coverage of UFC 149, what went wrong, why fans turned on the show, the future of Urijah Faber as well as the bantamweight and middleweight divisions, along with a look at controversial judging and close decisions. We also have our usual match-by-match coverage and fan reaction to the show.
We also have a look at three major shows over the past week in Japan, as Pro Wrestling NOAH had its big summer show featuring Samoa Joe, Christopher Daniels and Magnus, New Japan had its big event of the month with multiple championship matches, while Dragon Gate had its big event of the year.
We also look at Vince McMahon comments on ratings, WCW and UFC. We've got more on Steve Austin, notes on Vince McMahon's 2010 tax returns, how much income he made, how much he paid in taxes and more. We've got an update on the Linda McMahon campaign for senate, and reactions to her recent debate. We also look at her policy on tax cutting.
We've got more on another lawsuit filed against WWE, a look back at Terry Gordy on the anniversary of his death, the WWE 2013 PPV schedule, update on Kharma, developmental and an update on the TV situation, Raw going three hours, HHH talks reality TV, why David Otunga has been missing from TV, new people and names in developmental, Ziggler talks his future, how many people watch Raw on DVR's, notes on newcomers to the road for WWE, as well as the business notes for the past week as well as rundowns of all the WWE house shows.
We also have a note on yet another former Olympian who became a pro wrestling world champion, as well as a look at Tito Ortiz's career, his retirement and the UFC Hall of Fame.
Both issues are up on the site today if you are a web site member. We also have a new back issue on the site from 1995 just put up.
The Wrestling Observer ranges weekly from 35,000 to 50,000 words covering pro wrestling and MMA internationally. Each issue has coverage and analysis of all the major news, plus every issue breaks major news stories before the Internet sties and has the most complete look at the pro wrestling and MMA business anywhere, plus history pieces available nowhere else.
The Observer is now in its 29th year of being the leading insider pro wrestling publication in the world. The biggest and most influential names in the pro wrestling and MMA industry, from bookers to promoters to Hall of Fame wrestlers and fighters to the biggest names on camera and behind the scenes, along with thousands of readers in all 50 states and more than 30 countries subscribe. Many have subscribed for 20 years or longer consecutively. They get the most detailed and inside coverage of what is going on all over the world. Everywhere from Wall Street to the major offices to television networks in the U.S. and Japan turn to the Observer for what is going on in the business.
If you are a new subscriber ordering 24 or more issues, you can get one free classic issue of your choice sent to you today. With a 40 issue subscription, you can get two free classic issues sent to you today. Just sent your Visa or Master Card order with your name, address, phone number, card number and expiration date to
You can also order by paypal by sending to www.paypal.com
and directing the funds to
You can also subscribe via check, cash or money order, as well as credit card by mail, by sending to Wrestling Observer Newsletter, P.O Box 1228, Campbell, CA 95009-1228.
We also have a look at the ratings of all the major shows and complete details on how every segment of Raw this past week did. We look at what segments gained and lost viewers
We also have results from all the major league arena events over the past week as well as a look at all the major television shows.
Also in this week's issue:
--More on Pac leaving Dragon Gate and the tournament to crown the vacant trios champion
--Update on All Japan's junior heavyweight tournament
--Next major matches for NOAH
--Early notes on NOAH's annual junior heavyweight tag team tournament and where ROH competitors fit in
--New Japan vs. WWE big shows in a few weeks
--Notes on a new promotion that will likely make waves on the indie level
--Notes on the life of the late Goldie Rogers, a longtime Canadian star
--Notes on the next ROH iPPV
--Davey Richards/ROH update
--More on Hulk Hogan doing an indie show
--Why there are new issues in TNA and what changes are attempting to be made with what contracts
--A scoreboard regarding TNA talent, who is going and what will be very interesting to watch play out
--Identity of Aces and 8s
--Bound for Glory series update
--TNA house show notes
--A change at FOX
--The arguments regarding a bill in Congress that would affect UFC, WWE and Bellator
--Doctor who treated UFC star being investigated by board
--UFC and social media
--Lots of new UFC matches
--More on the situation with Strikeforce contracts
--New reality TV show on small station set to debut in August
--5,000 seat arena sells out two straight weeks
--Build for TripleMania
--Indie promotion books the biggest show in its history in a 16,000-seat arena
--Hall of Famer hospitalized trying to do too much after surgery
--Update on Bellator
--Notes on international MMA
New subscribers ordering 24 or 40 issues have to let us know what major stories of the past 11 years you are most interested in and we'll send the issue with the best coverage of that story. We've got coverage of every major PPV event and world wide spectacular, every major star switching promotions, histories of companies like FMW, Rings and New Japan, retirement and obit issues of every major star who fits into those descriptions over the past 11 years, as well as our biggest issue every year, the annual awards issue, and our most controversial issue of every year, the Hall of Fame issue.
Our most requested issues in our history are:
*November 17, 1997 (full details of everything leading to the most famous wrestling match finish of modern times at the Survivor Series plus a history of in-ring double-crosses)
*December 21, 1998 (the complete Vince McMahon-Bret Hart conversation right before the Survivor Series match so you'll know exactly what was said--the conversation played in edited form both on the inaugural broadcast of Confidential as well as in Wrestling with Shadows, but everything that was said between the two about the match that was going to take place that same night)
*August 1, 1994 (the most detailed coverage anywhere of the Vince McMahon steroid trial, an issue praised in numerous newspaper article and Sex, Lies and Headlocks)
*March 26, 2001 (death of WCW and history of pro wrestling on the Turner networks)
*October 22, 2001 (why the adult audience has left pro wrestling in such great numbers and what needed to have been done to save them)
*July 8, 1991 (Ric Flair leaves WCW as world champion/Zahorian steroid trial)
*February 8, 1993 (the life and times of Andre the Giant)
*May 13, 2002 (the life story of the most incredible pro wrestling career ever, a look at Lou Thesz, in one of the largest issues of our
*January 27, 2003 (part one of the two-part series covering the career and life of The Sheik)
*February 3, 2003 (Part two on The Sheik including thoughts from people who worked with him and where he stands historically)
*March 24, 2003 (history of the WWWF title, inside behind the Sammartino, Backlund and Backlund era)
*April 21, 2003 (history of WWF continues with the expansion nationally, the death of the regional territories and the rise of Hulk Hogan)
*May 12, 2003 (The life and death of Elizabeth and the rise of fall of Lex Luger)
*June 9, 2003 (Part 1 of history of WWF vs. WCW wars and what many say was the greatest year in U.S. wrestling; plus a look at Fred Blassie)
*June 16, 2003 (Freddie Blassie through the eyes of his biggest rivals and friends)
*July 28, 2003 (Part 2 of the history of the WWF vs. WCW war and the plans to make new superstars in the early 90s, what happened, and the night where the three biggest wrestling companies in the world combined for a joint show and what happened)
*August 25, 2003 (2003 Hall of Fame issue with huge profiles on the controversial career of Shawn Michaels, Chris Benoit as well as historical features on Earl Caddock and Francisco Flores)
*September 22, 2003 (Part 3 of the history of the WWF vs WCW war with the seeds that caused the collapse of the industry in the 90s, Zahorian trial, Gulf War controversy, Flair leaves WCW while holding world title and much more)
*October 27, 2003 (The fascinating life of Stu Hart plus the story of Road Warrior Hawk)
*January 19, 2004 (2003 Awards issue)
*February 2, 2004 (History of Toronto wrestling, Jack Tunney life story, Royal Rumble and Battle Royal history)
*February 23, 2004 (History of Guerrero family with Eddy's win over Brock Lesnar)
*March 1, 2004 (History of WWF continues with the period that brought the company down in early 1992, the mistakes, the real stories and how the business changed)
*March 8, 2004 (History of Wrestlemania, its greatest matches and best and worst shows as voted both by wrestlers and non-wrestlers and Wrestlemania history books)
*July 5, 2004 (A look behind the scenes and Ric Flair's book and his background with Eric Bischoff and Hulk Hogan)
*July 12, 2004 (A look at more on Ric Flair's book and his comments on Bruno Sammartino, Bret Hart and Mick Foley)
*August 16, 2004 (History of the Olympians in pro wrestling)
*August 23, 2004 (2004 Hall of Fame issue and biggest issue of the year with huge profiles on Kazushi Sakuraba, Undertaker, Bob Backlund, Masahiro Chono, Ultimo Dragon, Kurt Angle and Tarzan Lopez--this counts as one issue if you are asking for a free issue, but ordered separately, due to size, is $6 in North America and $7 overseas)
*October 4, 2004 (the life and times of Big Bossman; as well as details of the life and times of one of the most influential men world wide in pro wrestling history, Jim Barnett)
*November 15, 2004 (the full story of what happened between Kurt Angle and Daniel Puder, plus coverage of the most important week in the history of TNA)
*January 24, 2005 (2004 Awards issue, Rock and WWE part company)
*March 14, 2005 (the 50 biggest money players in the history of WWF and a look at their Hall of Fame)
*May 9, 2005 (the life and times of Chris Candido)
*June 20, 2005 (The full story behind Paul Heyman and the death of ECW, as well as coverage of One Night Stand, Hardcore Homecoming and behind the scenes of both shows)
*July 18, 2005 (death of Shinya Hashimoto and his records with a look at the fall of New Japan, the Matt Hardy angle, tons of WWE firings, Cornette firing in detail as well as problems of a WWE developmental territory in our biggest news issue of the year which is a double-sized issue and would be $6 on its own and $7 overseas)
*August 24, 2005 (2005 Hall of Fame issue with career profiles of Paul Heyman, HHH and Freebirds plus debut of MMA Hall of Fame)
*September 12, 2005 (History of Mid South Wrestling)
*October 10, 2005 (Life and Times of the Ultimate Warrior)
*November 21, 2005 (Life and Times of Eddy Guerrero and Crusher, double issue $6 on its own and $7 overseas)
*December 5, 2005 (The Eddy Guerrero special issue, double issue $6 on its own, $7 overseas)
*January 9, 2006 (The life and times of Superstar Billy Graham, plus New Year's Eve 2005 coverage)
*January 16, 2006 (2005 Awards double issue, $6 or $7 overseas)
*April 3, 2006 (Story of Ann Calvello and the history of Roller Derby--many called this the best issue of the Observer ever)
*April 10, 2006 (Behind the scenes at the 2006 Wrestlemania/Hall of Fame week)
*July 24, 2006 (The History of the Von Erichs and World Class Championship Wrestling--the most unreal story ever in wrestling)
*September 4, 2006 (The Rise and Fall of Kurt Angle; 2006 Hall of Fame inductions of Eddie Guerrero, Paul Bowser, Masakatsu Funaki, Aja Kong and Hiroshi Hase including tons of wrestling history around the world from the 20s through the 60s, the evolution of working to not working in Japan, and a look at Guerrero in hindsight, double issue $6 or $7 overseas)
*October 9, 2006 (A look back nine years later at the life and legacy of Brian Pillman with tons of inside information about what made him tick as his real objectives)
*November 15, 2006 (History of WCW part one, Eric Bischoff's book and how the industry was changed forever)
*November 20, 2006 (History of WCW part two, Why Jim Ross left WCW, How Bischoff changed the company, signing of Hulk Hogan, Beginning of Nitro, Jesse Ventura, Brian Pillman, Chris Jericho and signing Wrestlemania planned celebrity away)
*November 27, 2006 (History of WCW part three, When Bischoff challenged McMahon to fight; Truth and fiction around Bret Hart signing with WCW and why it didn't click)
*December 6, 2006 (details behind Pride's offers to sell promotion and Part four of History of WCW part four, Hogan-Goldberg match and why there was no rematch, WCW loses NBC network deal in 1999 and the real reasons the company fell apart)
*January 22, 2007 (2006 Awards issue, double issue $7 on its own, $8 overseas)
*February 14, 2007 (Life and Times of Bam Bam Bigelow)
*March 5, 2007 (WWE begins plans that will change the business)
*March 12, 2007 (Life and Times of Mike Awesome)
*March 19, 2007 (Life and Times of Ernie Ladd)
*April 4, 2007 (Life and Times of Badnews Allen Coage--which many are calling one of the best issues in history)
*July 2, 2007 (Part one of the Benoit double murder-suicide)
*July 5, 2007 (Part two of the Benoit double murder-suicide)
*July 10, 2007 (Part three of the Benoit double murder-suicide)
*July 19, 2007 (Part four of the Benoit double murder-suicide)
*July 23, 2007 (Part five of Benoit double murder-suicide)
*July 25, 2007 (Part six of Benoit double murder-suicide)
*August 15, 2007 (The legend of the God of Japanese wrestling and his influence on MMA, Karl Gotch)
*October 15 (2007 Hall of Fame double issue, $7 on its own, $8 overseas including inductions of The Rock, Tom Packs and the original Strangler Lewis)
*November 12, 2007 (Life and times of Fabulous Moolah and history of U.S. women's wrestling) .
*December 31, 2007 (History of Ric Flair and the heyday of wrestling at the Greensboro Coliseum)
*January 21, 2008 (2007 Awards issue, double issue $7 on its own, $8 overseas)
*March 17, 2008 (Life and times of Johnny Weaver)
*March 24, 2008 (Life and times of Gary Hart)
*April 10, 2008 (Farewell to Ric Flair; My thoughts, Shawn Michaels talks of Flair's meaning to him; Hall of Fame; Wrestlemania double issue, $7 on its own, $8 overseas)
*August 11, 2008 (Ric Flair leaves WWE; Updated history of pro wrestlers and MMA fighters who went to the Olympics)
* September 8, 2008 (2008 Hall of Fame double issue, $7 on its own, $8 overseas; part one of Killer Kowalski bio)
* September 15, 2008 (Life and Times of Evan Tanner)
* September 22, 2008 (The amazing career of Killer Kowalski, one of our most in-depth bios)
You can also order any of these issues on their own for $4 in North America or $5 overseas.
For the United States, it is $12 for 4 issues, $29 for 12, $55 for 24, $91 for 40 and $118 for 52. In Canada and Mexico, rates are $13.50 for 4, $33 for 12, $61 for 24, $101 for 40 and $131 or 52. In Europe, you can get the fastest delivery and best rates by sending to
For the rest of the world, rates are $15.50 for 4, $41 for 12, $78 for 24, $126 for 40 issues and $163 for 52 .
If you order by mail with a check, cash or money order (P.O. Box 1228, Campbell, CA 95009-1228), you can get $1 off in every price range.
We now have available personally autographed copies of Tributes II, our latest book, as well as a DVD that comes with it talking more about the subjects in the book. The book covers the life stories of Lou Thesz, Wahoo McDaniel, Elizabeth, Fred Blassie, Road Warrior Hawk, Andre the Giant, Curt Hennig, Johnny Valentine, Davey Boy Smith, Terry Gordy, Owen Hart, Stu Hart, Gorilla Monsoon, The Sheik and Tim Woods.
To get all of those biographies as back issues of the Observer would be a $60 value today. This is a collection of some of the best Observer articles of the past several years in a hardcover, full-color format that is 239 pages. There is also a foreword by Bret Hart. The book price is $12.95 plus $3.50 for shipping costs in the U.S., $10 for shipping costs to Canada and $12 for shipping costs outside North America. You can order the book the same way you order the newsletter.
Saturday's News Updates
--Yes, there is a FOX UFC special tomorrow (check your local listings) -- a Countdown show for the Saturday live show focusing on Shogun Rua, Brandon Vera, Lyoto Machida and Ryan Bader. I don't know when it airs in various markets but in most West Coast markets, it's running 11 a.m. to Noon, and I'm guessing that's the national time. This is one of the best kept secrets in sports.
--Today is the fifth anniversary of the death of the Japanese God of pro wrestling, Charles "Karl Gotch" Istaz at the age of 82. He was reputed to be one of the toughest men alive during his heyday and was one of the strongest influences on the Japanese pro wrestling scene after his heyday. Antonio Inoki vs. Karl Gotch was also the main event of the first ever New Japan Pro Wrestling show in 1972, and I believe Gotch beat Inoki several times clean at a time when Inoki would lose to nobody else.
--Today is also the 30th anniversary of when Jerry Lawler and Andy Kaufman did their angle on the David Letterman show. This was not the original angle in Memphis, but after that angle and built the returns where Lawler slapped Kaufman in the face on live television. This has made some lists of the greatest moments in television history. (thanks to Brian Henke)
--WWE will be releasing a Brock Lesnar DVD and Blu Ray on 10/30.
--Tickets went on sale today for Raw on 10/22 at the Izod Center in East Rutherford, NJ, the first time in two years Raw will be held in the building.
--The WWE YouTube channel ranked No. 4 among YouTube channels this past week with 4,118,065 total views, way up from usual likely due to the 1,000th Raw leading to a lot of publicity. Warner Sound, SourceFed and ENTV were the top three.
--ROH has announced six of the eight teams in its tag team title tournament that starts a week from tonight in Baltimore: Mark & Jay Briscoe, The Young Bucks, Ruckus & Jeez, Guardians of Truth, Caprice Coleman & Cedric Alexander and Lance & Harlem Bravado.
--Yahoo Sports had a poll on what sports American think should be added to the Olympics:
Field Hockey 15%
--For tonight's Invicta show, the winners of the two main events (Sara McMann vs. Shayna Baszler and Alexis Davis vs. Hitomi Akano) will face off in October to create the company's first 135 pound champion.
Which of these men most belongs on the Hall of Fame ballot?
Greg Valentine 33.7%
Baron Von Raschke 11.4%
Les Thatcher 10.9%
George Steele 10.0%
Tiger Jeet Singh 10.0%
Jimmy Valiant 8.4%
Nikolai Volkoff 7.8%
Sailor Art Thomas 2.8%
Waldo Von Erich 1.9%
Dick Steinborn 1.4%
Les Thornton 1.4%
Tarzan Tyler 0.3%
Poll on MMA Uncensored
***82.0% of those responding didn't see the show
Poll on Impact from Thursday
***26.9% of those responding didn't see the show
--Pro Wrestling Revolution is running tonight at the Santa Cruz County Fairgrounds with Blue Demon Jr. vs. Oliver John and Lady Apache vs. La Diabolica as headliners. They are one of the best drawing and least publicized indie groups in the country and have topped 1,000 fans for shows when using some of the bigger names.
--Traditional Championship Wrestling (
) is looking for contact information on Cherry, the former manager of Deuce & Domino in WWE.
--IWRG from Thursday night at Arena Naucalpan: Infierno Kid b Galaxy, Centrvision & Charly Madrid b Imposible & Matrix Jr., Alan Extreme & Black Terry & Bombero Infernal b Danny Casas & Dr. Cerebro & Micke Segura, Los Oficiales b Comando Elite to win the Mexican state trios title, Fuerza Guerrera & Pirata Morgan & El Hijo del Pirata Morgan b Damian 666 & Head Hunter I & Pete Powers-DQ (thanks to Kris Zellner)
--Big Time Wrestling from last night in Newark, CA: Victor Sterling b Aaron Solo, Tony Vargas & Syn b L'Emperor & Chico Navarrro, Davina Rose b K.C. Spinelli, Kimo b Daivari-DQ (not that Kimo but that Daivari) for the cruiserweight title, Chavo Guerrero Jr. b Ryan Von Kool, Shane Kody & Jason Styles b Ballard Brothers & Aaron Solo. They announced a show in September headlined by John Morrison and teased the idea of the Ultimate Warrior coming. (thanks to Derek Sousa)
--Savio Vega, Eric Escobar and Jimmy Wang Yang will be wrestling for PRWA on Sunday in Cheneiz, Puerto Rico at the Convention Center at 3 p.m. All seats are $5.