Biography of Shirley "Big Daddy" Crabtree
by Jeremy Wall
In my mind, the most enjoyable aspect of the Observer Hall of Fame is that it provides the opportunity to research and discuss wrestlers that I'm unfamiliar with. The international and historical scope of the Hall is predicated on quality research of nominees and, subsequently, consideration of the historical value of the findings from this research. When the WWE does their Hall of Fame, no one is researching the careers of nominees nor is anyone writing biographies or participating in discussions about why someone should (or should not) be in that Hall. This is mainly because the WWE Hall is about politics and marketing more than anything else. That isn't to say that the Observer Hall is free from politics or marketing (how could it be?), and it has its own flaws, but its voting methodology is stronger compared to the WWE Hall, where there is only person whose vote counts.
To me, it doesn't matter who gets voted into the Observer Hall. The point is that the Hall creates the opportunity for people to research and discuss wrestlers who would never get attention from most modern fans if not for the fact that they are listed on the ballot.
One of those names is Shirley Crabtree, better known as Big Daddy. Crabtree was a major star on British television throughout the late '70s and into the '80s. Last year I started doing research on Crabtree, through the newspaper archives of The Guardian and The Observer (Britain's Observer, not wrestling's Observer, but I've also been researching through the Wrestling Observer), and also through books and articles written by journalists, both in wrestling and in the mainstream.
Most of the stuff written about Crabtree is from British fans who grew up watching him in the '80s. I am not British, nor did I grow up watching Crabtree, nor do I particularly enjoy watching videos of Crabtree on YouTube or elsewhere. If Big Shirley wasn't on the Observer ballot, I probably wouldn't be writing about him at all. My contribution to historical research on Crabtree is important, though, because I'm not influenced by nostalgia and can approach him from a dispassionate perspective. The disadvantage is that I'm trying to understand Crabtree as an outsider to British wrestling from his era, but then again, most historical writing is done from the perspective of an outsider.
Of the names in the European category of this year's ballot, Crabtree is probably the strongest. Mick McManus was voted in last year. McManus was the top name in British wrestling for decades before Crabtree's popularity blew up in the late '70s, and was probably a deserving nominee for the Hall. In 2011, Kent Walton was voted in. Walton was the voice of British TV wrestling from the '50s through the '80s and anyone who grew up in that time and place would recognize his voice. Those two names are probably the only two elected into the Observer Hall based solely on their contributions to British wrestling.
If a third name got in based only on British wrestling, it would be Crabtree. In 2011, he received 44% of the vote. In 2012, he received only 23%. The drop might be because those who would have voted for him in 2012 voted for McManus instead, although that's just speculation on my part. In some ways Crabtree is a more deserving candidate than McManus. He was probably a bigger draw on television, although that might be debated. He also seemed to have more mainstream cultural influence in Britain in comparison to McManus. McManus was almost definitely a better worker, as a Big Daddy match was usually nothing but a negative star affair unless he was placed in a tag match with better workers. McManus certainly had more longevity.
Crabtree was born November 4th, 1930, in Halifax, West Yorkshire, a member of the great unwashed in a small working class town in Northern England. The oldest of three brothers (the other two being Max and Brian), he had the misfortune of being named after his father. His grandmother was a fan of Charlotte Bronte's novel from 1849, "Shirley". Ironically, the Bronte novel is actually what made the name Shirley popular for girls, as it was a story about a a father who wanted a son named Shirley, but instead got a daughter, so named her Shirley anyway.
His father left home for another woman when Shirley Junior was young, leaving mother to raise the three boys alone. She worked twelve-hour shifts in the local mills and brickyards to support her family. The home had no running water and no indoor plumbing. Shirley remembers his mother carrying two bags of coal up three flights of stairs to the boys' rooms. "My grandmother weighed 22 stone [about 300 pounds] and my mother could carry two sacks of coal upstairs on her back," he later claimed.
He was teased about his name at school, the kids calling him Shirley Temple. His father had played rugby and wrestled, and Crabtree got into that, too. He played rugby in school, made second-team, and failed to make first team, allegedly due to misconduct. He quit school at 14 and worked at a spinning mill, replacing the bobbins on machines. At 16 he and his two brothers were also lifeguards at Blackpool beach, where Shirley would reside much later in life after retiring from wrestling.
All three brothers started as wrestlers and remained involved in the business to some degree. Brian eventually became a ref and a ring announcer. Max was a promoter and later was the booker for the ITV show that made Shirley a star in Britain. Shirley was trained by Sandy Orford, a future opponent of Lou Thesz. Crabtree made his wrestling debut on June 14th, 1952, at St. James' Hall in Newcastle, losing to Orford.
Pro wrestling had existed in different forms in Britain since the beginning of the twentieth century. In 1952, Joint Promotions was launched. It was a cartel of promoters that carved Britain into territories the same way that the NWA had done in America. Also like the NWA, promotions traded talent, controlled title belts, and worked with one another to block outlaw competition. The most important promotion was the London group, run by Dale Martin, who had started promoting in the city in 1948.
Wrestling debuted on British TV on November 9th, 1955, on ABC and ATV, which were the forerunners to ITV. ITV would air the wrestling program that made Crabtree a star decades later. The show was popular and aired every Saturday afternoon during the winter and some Wednesday nights until 1964, when it joined the program World of Sports on ITV and ran year round Saturdays at 4 pm.
At the time, there were only two channels in Britain, ITV and the BBC. BBC launched its second channel in 1964 and Channel 4 started in 1982. But, in 1965, wrestling was one of Britain's top twenty shows for fifteen weeks, with a peak 7.3 million viewers tuning in to watch Roy Bull Davies against Billy Howes and Ken Cadman against Johnny Eagles. Joint Promotions allegedly received 15,000 pounds per week in TV rights and television exposure brought more fans to shows, with Joint regularly drawing upwards of 5,000 people in the mid sixties.
Besides Joint and their weekly TV show, the most notable independent promoter at the time was Paul Lincoln. Crabtree started wrestling in the '50s for Lincoln under the names Blond Adonis and Mr Universe. He would bounce back and forth between shows promoted by either Lincoln, his brother Max, or Joint Promotions. During that time he was less fat and more muscled than when he became a star decades later. He wasn't much of a worker, and didn't earn much money, leaving wrestling for stretches of time. His most notable achievements during this period seem to be winning a version of the European Heavyweight title twice, once in 1960 in Leicester and again in '61. He also held a version of the British Heavyweight title around this time. These weren't the major titles recognized by Joint Promotions, but instead were titles recognized by the British Wrestling Federation, an entity created by independent promoters.
Crabtree returned to Joint Promotions in 1962 (his brother Max wrestled at least twice on the Joint ITV show in 1962 under his real name). He continued to wrestle under his real name and other gimmicks with Joint until 1968, when he started wrestling in Blackpool solely for Max's independent promotion once again.
He made another return to Joint Promotions in 1972, debuting on their ITV show under his real name on September 2nd, defeating Pete Curry. He wrestled twice more on ITV that year, with wins over Pete Roberts (September 30th) and Steve Haggetty (November 21st). In 1973 he had a brief feud with Kendo Nagasaki, losing via knockout on January 13th in a show taped January 10th. It would be one of the only major losses of Crabtree's career that would ever air on TV.
In the 70s, boxing promoter Jarvis Astair bought out Dale Martin's London promotion. Many of the original Joint Promotions promoters were retiring and selling their companies. Astair further bought out other Joint Promotions territories, along with Lincoln's independent promotion. Astair was unsuccessful and sold his promotion to the bookmaking company William Hill. Aging Jackie Pallo, a star who had a hot feud with McManus in the '60s, attempted to start his own promotion in 1975 with Max Crabtree was booker, but it didn't take off as the new owners of Joint poached Max to be their head booker.
This is when Shirley Crabtree morphed into Big Daddy and this story really began. With brother Max as booker, Shirley was repackaged as Daddy. It was Max's idea. Max had watched "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof", a movie that was released in 1958 starring Paul Newman as an alcoholic ex-football player reunited with his father 'Big Daddy', played by Burl Ives (Max watched either the film or live theatre version). Along with his Mr Universe and Blond Adonis gimmicks Shirley had also been wrestling as the Battling Guardsman, as years earlier he had been a member of the Coldstream Guards, the oldest regiment in Britain's army.
"At this point Shirley was in the Guinness Book of Records as having the biggest chest in Great Britain. It was 64 inches," claimed Max. "I said to him, 'I think we'll leave the Guardsman out and we'll try Big Daddy,' and it just clicked. He invested in the right clothes, the top hat and that, and people went mad." Whether or not the story about having the Guinness record for Britain's biggest chest is true, the Big Daddy gimmick was finally the one that made Shirley successful.
Crabtree would wrestle in spandex concoctions that bore the phrases 'Big Daddy' and "Sock it to Me'. He added a glittering top hat and a cape to complete his look. As ridiculous as his appearance sounds, Big Daddy would become a hero to children and little old ladies throughout Britain. Crabtree would walk to the ring accompanied by a train of small children. During his heyday, crowds at live events were sixty percent women, most them elderly. The simplicity of Crabtree as a hero who whipped villains caused perennial British television commentator Nancy Banks-Smith to remark, "It is no wonder that elderly ladies with a simple but strong sense of right and wrong are such faithful followers."
Wrestling was actually heavily viewed by women in Britain mostly because their husbands would be attending Saturday afternoon soccer matches. In Britain, soccer has been banned since the '60s by the leagues from airing on live TV on Saturdays to prevent reduction in live attendance. This bizarre practice actually continues today, although nowadays games can easily be watched in Britain on foreign cable channels. Soccer was banned between 2:45 pm and 5:15 pm on Saturdays. Wrestling aired on ITV from 4 to 4:45 pm, as at 4 pm ITV broadcast the half-time scores and at 4:45 it broadcast final scores. Football scores would also be updated during the wrestling show in the corner of the screen.
His first appearance on ITV under the Big Daddy moniker was on July 19th, 1975 in a show taped earlier that month in Southport. He teamed with future rival Giant Haystacks against Roy and Tony St Clair. Crabtree had appeared on the ITV show earlier in the month under his real name, wrestling John Cox.
By this point Shirley was middle-aged with a gut that hung embarrassingly towards the floor. But it didn't matter. The Big Daddy gimmick took off anyway. Wrestling's popularity had been in decline in Britain in the mid '70s as McManus, the country's biggest star, was far too old to be a major draw anymore. Crabtree rejuvenated it. But like many others in wrestling before and after, what he did to make wrestling popular was also what eventually killed it.
Crabtree was frequently booked in tag matches to disguise his limited ability in the ring. When he was placed in singles bouts, time was kept mercifully short. He wrestled Britain's top heels, including Kendo Nagasaki, Mighty John Quinn (actually Canadian, and brother of NHL coach Pat Quinn) and Giant Haystacks, the latter of whom is remembered as Crabtree's arch-rival. Crabtree's popularity made him a mainstream figure in Britain. He was frequently written about in the newspaper and was a guest on many popular TV shows, including "This is Your Life" (which you can find on YouTube if you have an hour of your life to spare).
He lost to Kendo Nagasaki on the September 13th, 1975 show in what was billed as the semi-finals of a Super Heavyweight Knockout Competition. This continued feud between the two that had started in '73 before Crabtree was billed as Daddy. Nagasaki, who is also on this year's Observer Hall of Fame ballot, was then one of Britain's most popular heels. Crabtree unmasked him on ITV on December 6th, 1975, although Nagasaki scored a quick pinfall win a moment later. This was two years before Nagasaki unmasked in an infamous ceremony that was one of the most popular wrestling angles in ITV history. They wrestled again later that month, as on December 27th Crabtree teamed with Haystacks against Nagasaki and Rex Strong.
Crabtree became so big that he attracted the attention of celebrities and politicians. Margaret Thatcher's press secretary Bernard Ingham was a fan of Daddy and introduced him to the Prime Minister at a charity lunch. At home, Crabtree kept a photograph of himself with former Attorney-General Lord Havers. And years later, when he was on his deathbed, Tony Blair, then Prime Minister, sent him a get-well message.
Crabtree's daughter later recalled, “His theme tune We Shall Not Be Moved would come over the tannoy and the crowd would start chanting ‘Easy! Easy! Easy!’ and I’d think ‘blimey, that’s my Dad’. It was almost overwhelming.”
The biggest wrestling show of the year in Britain was always the FA Cup Finals show. The FA Cup Finals show was, for decades, the only soccer show allowed to air on live TV on Saturday afternoons. It aired at 3pm (until 2012, when it was moved to 5pm). The FA Cup Final is the last match in the Football Association Challenge Cup in Britain. Wrestling would air before coverage of the Cup Finals began. The biggest matches of the year would thus air the day of the Cup Finals. The first wrestling show held on a Cup Final day was in 1961 at Wembley featuring Billy Two Rivers against Francis Sullivan. McManus and Pollo had their major Cup Final match in 1963 when McManus successfully defended his Welterweight title.
Daddy's first appearance at a Cup Final event was in 1978, teaming with frequent partner Tony St Clair against Haystacks and Ian Muir. Including that first appearance, he wrestled on eight Cup Final shows, all of which took place during the month of May. In 1979 he teamed with Ringo Rigby against Quinn and Rollerball Mark Rocco (the latter of whom is also on this year's Hall of Fame ballot). In 1981 he teamed with Alan Kilby against Haystacks and Wild Angus. In 1982 he teamed with Akira Maeda of all people (wrestling under the name Kwik-kik Lee) against Tony Walsh and Cruisher Brannigan. In '83 his partner was Kid Chocolate and they faced the Masked Marauders. In '84 he teamed with Drew McDonald against Giant Haystacks and Fit Finlay. In '85 he teamed with Mick McMichael against Tommy Lorne and Pete LaPaque.
1986 was Crabtree's last appearance wrestling on a Cup Final show. His partner was Danny Collins and they wrestled Fit Finlay and Scrubber Daly. Within a couple of years Joint Promotions wrestling on ITV was canceled and Cup Finals shows stopped airing.
Besides the Cup Finals shows, the three biggest matches of Daddy's career took place at Wembley Arena. The first of which occurred on July 14th, 1979, against John Quinn with the stipulation that the match must end via knockout. Quinn had become a popular heel after cutting a promo claiming that the British were cowards during the Second World War. A sellout crowd of 10,000 paying double the regular ticket price saw Big Daddy down Quinn, who was accompanied by Haystacks, in 102 seconds. It set Britain's wrestling indoor attendance record.
The feud between Daddy and Quinn continued. At the 1979 Cup Final show, Quinn defeated Wayne Bridges via blood stoppage to win Joint's World Heavyweight title. Daddy attacked Quinn after the match, setting up a rematch between the two at Wembley on June 11th, 1980. The rematch ended up being a tag and for whatever reason went untelevised. Daddy teamed with Bridges against Quinn and Masa Fuji, with the faces going over. A single rematch between Daddy and Quinn never materialized when Quinn left with the Heavyweight title to join rival All-Star Wrestling.
The biggest match of Daddy's career, though, took place at Wembley on June 18th, 1981 and aired two days later on ITV. Giant Haystacks was his opponent. Haystacks, real name Martin Ruane, was born in Camberwell Green, London, in 1946 to Irish parents. He grew up in Manchester and as an adult worked in highway construction and as a bouncer before someone suggested he try wrestling. He was billed at 6'11" and announced as the "40 stone monster", and claimed he ate three pounds of bacon and a dozen eggs each morning. He would later wrestle as Loch Ness in WCW in 1995, and died of cancer in December 1988 at the age of 52.
Their feud had started in 1977. On September 3rd of that year, ITV wrestling held another heavyweight knockout tournament. Big Daddy beat Rex Strong and Giant Haystacks beat Tony St Clair in the semi-finals. In the finals, Daddy beat Haystacks by count out when the latter walked out of the ring, refusing to wrestle. On November 5th, 1977, they wrestled their first ITV match, which went to a no-contest. On the Christmas Eve show, Daddy teamed with Tony St Clair to defeat Haystacks and Baron Donovan.
In front of another sellout of 10,000, Big Daddy defeated Giant Haystacks in a knockout only match in 2:50. It was the last appearance of Joint Promotions at Wembley and probably the peak of British wrestling.
Singles bouts were actually a rarity for Daddy. When they did happen, they were short. "Eight minutes, in and out. You don't want to see Shirley spend 15 minutes putting on a leglock," said Max. Singles bouts were more frequent early in his career, but as the 1980s wore down, he would be featured almost exclusively in tag matches. The formula was that he would be paired with a smaller and better worker who would wrestle most of the match, before making the hot tag to Daddy. Many future stars spent the early part of their careers as Big Daddy's little partner, including Tom Billington, who dislikes Crabtree something fierce, having nothing but negative things to say about him in his autobiography "Pure Dynamite".
Other notable matches during Daddy's career include an April 15th, 1978 ITV six-man tag teaming with Kung Fu and Kid Chocolate against Mick McManus, Tony Walsh, and Pete Kaye. Daddy's team won in what seems likely to be the first meeting between Daddy and McManus, or at least the first that was televised. He wrestled McManus on ITV again in 1979, teaming with Young David to beat McManus and Steve Logan.
He also frequently faced Rollerball Mark Rocco in tag matches, with Rocco usually teaming with fatter partners such as Quinn and Haystacks. Daddy also teamed with future World Class star Chris Adams frequently throughout 1980. In 1981 he teamed with Sammy Lee, who was Satoru Sayama doing a racist martial arts gimmick. In 1983 he teamed with Johnny Smith, who years later would partner with Tom Billington as the British Bruisers after Billington left WWF. Also, in 1987 and 1988, late in the ITV run, he teamed with another Hall of Fame nominee in Marty Jones against a variety of different opponents.
In the mid-80s, Daddy's popularity began to severely wane. In 1985, Daddy's frequent opponent Tony Walsh was interviewed for a series of articles by The Sun, a British tabloid. Walsh was upset with the Crabtrees, allegedly feeling he was disrespected after the death of his sister in a car crash, and revealed to The Sun that wrestling was fixed. Although fans in Britain had to know wrestling was worked, the tabloid articles painted Daddy and the ITV show in a bad light.
British wrestling was struck another blow on August 24th, 1987 when Daddy's longtime opponent Malcolm Kirk died of a heart attack during a match with Daddy at the Hippodrome in Great Yarmouth. Daddy splashed down on him, and then, realizing something was wrong, called medics to the ring. They attempted to resuscitate King to no avail. It took eight men to carry him to the ambulance. A post-mortem revealed Kirk had died of a heart attack.
Public interest in the incident was high enough that the Great Yarmouth Deputy Coroner held a public inquest. The inquest revealed that King had a serious heart condition that could have killed him at anytime, and that Kirk had suffered six small heart attacks that he was possibly unaware of in the four to right weeks before his death. There was subsequent debate on whether wrestlers over the age of fifty should be allowed in the ring.
Kirk left behind a wife and two kids. Daddy received more negative press when Ilona, Kirk's wife, said that "Big Daddy is using my husband's death for publicity stunts." Daddy wrestled the night after the death, claiming that's what Kirk would have wanted him to do. He also claimed that Kirk's last words were, "Come on you bastard Daddy. Let's see what you can do."
The Daddy gimmick had also grown stale, as he had dominated the British wrestling scene, almost never losing since 1975. It was sort of like The Sheik in Detroit, except where The Sheik was a heel, Daddy was a face. But they both rarely lost over many years, and eventually they defeated all of their opponents so soundly and the promotion failed to make any new stars that there weren't any feuds left that could draw money. Joint Promotions lost their exclusive contract for wrestling on ITV in '86 and WWF wrestling started airing in Britain shortly thereafter.
Daddy's final appearance on ITV was billed as his farewell match. It aired on November 11th, 1988, and he teamed with Tom Thumb and Kashmir Singh against Bulldog Brown, John Wilkie, and Sid Cooper. The final episode of Joint wrestling aired on ITV on December 17th, 1988.
"It is difficult to know which was the more significant happening in the world of television last week -- the arrival of Sir William Rees-Mogg or the departure of Big Daddy," wrote the Observer after it was announced that ITV had canceled Joint Promotions wrestling. In a situation that would mirror Jamie Kellner and WCW thirteen years later, a new executive named Greg Dyke took control of ITV and decided wrestling had the wrong image for the station. ITV scrapped wrestling in favour of airing old movies. Dyke would later go on to become the Director-General of the BBC.
"The scene had become stale long before Greg Dyke took it off," said Nagasaki.
Crabtree wrestled his final match on December 29th, 1993, teaming with Tony Stewart against the Undertakers (not Mark Callaway and Brian Lee, just in case you were wondering, which you probably weren't). He suffered a stroke and died December 2nd, 1997 in Blackpool. He had suffered a previous stroke in 1993 that caused minor paralysis and left Shirley with a limp, forcing him into retirement. The Guardian wrote, "He was an entertainer from another age, a hefty symbol of gaudy glamour and simple pleasures."
But is he a Hall of Famer? In the September 11th, 2012, issue of the Wrestling Observer, Dave Meltzer wrote, "[The Hall of Fame is] supposed to be based on long-time drawing power, working ability and historical importance, everyone has their own idea of what those are, and own ideas of who should be in."
Did Crabtree have long-term drawing power? He was a star in Britain from 1975 until 1988, with the peak years roughly being 75-81. He drew big money at Wembley, and apparently drew TV ratings ITV, although I haven't seen anything about ITV television ratings to be sure of that. The best person to compare Daddy's drawing power with would be Mick McManus. McManus was a draw for decades, much longer than Daddy. He also drew on TV and at Wembley. Daddy seems to be a bigger name in the mainstream now, if only because he was popular when today's adults were growing up. But, in terms of national drawing power, Daddy had it for quite a few years. His drawing power in Britain is probably the strongest argument for him to be in the Hall.
His working ability is non-existent. I've watched a ton of his matches on YouTube. He was terrible, something else entirely. His best matches would likely be graded as DUDs. I have no idea if he was a better worker in the '50s and '60s before he was a star because I can't find any of those matches, and they probably no longer exist on video. History says that he was less fat back then, so logically he should have been more athletic, but that doesn't mean much. If Daddy gets into the Hall, he'll be one of the worst workers ever voted in, if not the worst. Even if Mean Gene gets into the Hall this year, Gene might still be considered a better worker.
In terms of historical importance, he was incredibly important for British wrestling. Wrestling was dying in the mid-70s when the Crabtrees reinvigorated it with the Daddy gimmick. They killed it in 1988 when it was taken off of ITV, and it never recovered. If not for Daddy, British wrestling may have died out in the '70s. Likewise, if not for Daddy, it may have survived the '80s, although with the global expansion of the WWF, that probably wasn't the case as British wrestling was essentially another territory, even if it was on the other side of the Atlantic, and died the same as any other territory.
The case of the Crabtrees killing British wrestling is similar to Eric Bischoff and WCW, in that Bischoff made WCW popular when it wasn't, and then made it so unwatchable that it got canceled from television, killing it. That is more or less what happened with Big Daddy and Joint Promotions. Thus, Daddy had both a tremendous positive and negative effect on wrestling in Britain, and he has great historical importance in that country.
So, he drew money, is historically important, but was an awful worker. As far as I see it, you ought to vote for Daddy if you're willing to overlook his workrate and feel that his contributions as a drawing card and historical figure in British wrestling are great enough to rival the drawing power and historical importance of wrestlers from countries like the US, Japan, and Mexico, among others. I know Dave believes one of the strengths of the Observer Hall is its international scope. The United Kingdom currently has a population of 63.18 million people and is one of the most important countries on the planet, historically and economically. It would be difficult to claim the Observer Hall is truly international if a major figure from such an important country doesn't get the recognition from voters that he deserves. But that's up to the voters.
There's been a lot written about Daddy over the years. Here's what I researched and where you can read more:
John Lister has a great web site at http://www.johnlisterwriting.com/itvwrestling/
. Lister is a frequent contributor to the Observer. He also has articles at http://houseofdeception.com/British_Wrestling_History.html
that are worth reading.
Also, he has an ebook about British wrestling history titled "Greetings Grapple Fans" available at http://www.amazon.com/Greetings-Grapple-Fans-ebook/dp/B007HOQVUA
. I haven't read it, but it looks good.
Two other notable books on British wrestling are "Who's the Daddy" by Ryan Danes (with help from Crabtree's daughter), a biography of Big Daddy available at http://www.amazon.com/Whos-The-Daddy-Biography-Big/dp/1909178608
. Also, "The Wrestling", published in 1996 by Simon Garfield, available at http://www.amazon.ca/Wrestling-Simon-Garfield/dp/0571236766
Steve Wareing has a bio of Big Daddy in the archives of the Observer site at http://www.f4wonline.com/component/content/article/80-features-and-tv-reviews/6948-steve-wareing-with-a-historical-look-at-big-daddy-shirley-crabtree-members-only
. He has a follow-up to that article at http://www.f4wonline.com/component/content/article/7143/
And finally, I have dozens of newspapers clippings about Daddy, McManus, Nagasaki, and British wrestling in general archived in a zip file available for download at http://www.mediafire.com/?04hoxi1j9jduupt
Jeremy Wall is the author of UFC's Ultimate Warriors: The Top Ten. He can be contacted at jeremydalew at gmail dot com.